Fluid Therapy in Animals
Intravenous fluids are one the most commonly administered treatments in veterinary medicine. Fluids are drugs that are capable of producing marked changes in hemodynamic, electrolyte, acid-base, hematologic and coagulation profiles dependent upon the fluid type (i.e. crystalloid, colloid), volume, rate and timing of fluid administration. Appreciation of the physiologic relevance of blood volume distribution (i.e. stressed, unstressed), the endothelial glycocalyx and lymphatic system during health and disease (ex. hemorrhage, trauma, sepsis) has revised understanding of capillary fluid and solute exchange and resulted in context-sensitive volume expansion. This approach in conjunction with appropriate use of vasopressors and the employment of improved monitoring techniques has increased the effectiveness of fluid infusion while limiting the potential for overhydration.
New evidence regarding the physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that determine fluid balance, capillary fluid flux, fluid therapy pharmacokinetics and monitoring techniques has generated new terminology and definitions used to describe fluid administration and revised traditional fluid therapy procedures, protocols and monitoring techniques. Traditional ‘monkey see monkey do’ and unmonitored approaches to fluid therapy have been demonstrated to produce deleterious side effects as a result of fluid overload including impaired renal function, pulmonary congestion, prolonged recovery form anesthesia, increased hospital stay times and poor outcomes particularly in high risk or critically ill animals. The clinical application of revised physiologic principles governing body fluid distribution, fluid administration dependent pharmacokinetics and techniques for monitoring fluid therapy in health and disease have improved the response to IV fluid administration and reduced the potential for fluid therapy related side effects. This Research Topic will provide up to date information regarding fluid resuscitation recommendations for a variety of veterinary disease states that will improve current fluid therapy practices and reduce fluid therapy associated detrimental effects resulting from fluid overload.
Themes that will be explored in this Research Topic include:
• Fluid therapy terminology and definitions
• Fluid balance and physiologic principles
• Fluid administration pharmacokinetics and pharmocodynamics
• Types of fluids (i.e. crystallods, colloids) and their uses
• Fluid therapy considerations for various disease states (ex. hemorrhage, trauma, sepsis)
• Fluid therapy monitoring techniques
• New and improved methods for fluid administration
• Ideal fluids and fluids of the future
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International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology